Facial pain in infants

However, infants cannot express their subjective pain experience, as they do not communicate in any language. Facial expression is the most specific pain indicator, which has been effectively employed for automatic pain recognition. In this paper, dynamic pain facial expression representation and fusion scheme for automatic pain assessment in infants is proposed by combining temporal appearance facial features and temporal geometric facial features. We investigate the effects of various factors that influence pain reactivity in infants, such as individual variables of gestational age, gender, and race.
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23.02.2020
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The expression of pain in infants and toddlers: developmental changes in facial action

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The expression of pain in infants and toddlers: developmental changes in facial action

Age-related changes in the facial expression of pain during the first 18 months of life have important implications for our understanding of pain and pain assessment. We examined facial reactions video recorded during routine immunization injections in 75 infants stratified into 2-, 4-, 6-, , and month age groups. Two facial coding systems differing in the amount of detail extracted were applied to the records. In addition, parents completed a brief questionnaire that assessed child temperament and provided background information. Parents' efforts to soothe the children also were described. While there were consistencies in facial displays over the age groups, there also were differences on both measures of facial activity, indicating systematic variation in the nature and severity of distress.
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Assessing pain in infants

Even seasoned parents can find it tough to tell the difference between a baby in pain and a baby who is hungry. But now a face-recognition system is being developed that could help lift the veil on infant communication and allow us to know when babies are genuinely experiencing pain. If it proves successful, this kind of software could be used in neonatal intensive-care units NICU to help alert medical staff when an infant becomes seriously distressed, says Sheryl Brahnam , an information scientist at Missouri State University at Springfield. Such pain scales take into account a variety of factors, including body posture, blood pressure, and sensitivity to touch, as well as facial expression.
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